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How Central Heating Works?

How Central Heating Works? Central heating is today one of the basic methods for heating buildings (not only in London). Its centrality is based on the fact that heat is generated in one place and then distributed over the building using a special installation for heat receivers in rooms. The reverse of central heating would be to install a separate source of heat in each room, for example an electric heater. A central heating system provides warmth to the whole interior of a building (or portion of a building) from one point to multiple rooms. When combined with other systems in order to control the building climate, the whole system may be an HVAC (heating, ventilation and air conditioning) system.

In today’s installations, the most common heat carrier is water. In some cases, non-freezing fluids, such as crops, are used – in installations that are not used throughout the winter. Central heating consists of three basic elements: a boiler, a circulation pump and radiators.


The boiler is used to heat the water flowing in the installation. Sometimes it is connected to a hot water container. Its task is to produce heat as cheaply and as effectively as possible. Cheapest, i.e. with the highest possible efficiency and cheap fuel. The circulating pump forces the circulation of the medium through the installation. The heaters, in turn, are installed in individual rooms and there they emit heat to the air. Instead of radiators, floor heating is sometimes used – pipes placed under the floor.

Today, quite often in central heating installations, two-function boilers are installed, which at the same time serve the production of hot usable water. Their advantage is that they combine two functions in one place. Buying one such device, we solve two problems. Perhaps the dual-purpose boiler will not be as efficient as the water heater or the central heating boiler, but it is significantly saved on the purchase, use of space and installation (one thread of gas).

In the simplest scheme of central heating, the boiler heats up the water by burning fuel, which due to the difference in density (it is lighter than cold water) or through pumps flows into the radiators, cools down and returns to the boiler.

In a more advanced central heating system, a coil in a hot utility water boiler is also connected to the water circulation from the boiler. So in addition to heating the radiators themselves, hot water also heats water for utility purposes (taps, shower). Why can not water from the boiler go directly to the tap? Because firstly there would be too large losses in heating the water flowing through the boiler (in the example it is a closed diagram and the water returning to the boiler is already warmer than the one from the network). In addition, the water in the radiators is too hot to be used for utility purposes, and it would be difficult to regulate the heating temperature without affecting the temperature of the hot water.

If you want to buy a new heating system, replace some old radiators with efficient new ones, or your boiler is more than 10 years old and it’s time to replace it, get in touch with optical facilities. We offer quotations and all the advice you need for replacing your boiler with a new one.

For more information go to Optical Facilities or Optical Heating and Plumbing.